Ereviews: Native American History | January 2012

The following resources provide a solid foundation for students and researchers working in the area of Native American studies and supplement that base with a rich, deep supply of primary-source documents. Facts On File’s American Indian History Online and ABC-CLIO’s The American Mosaic: The American Indian Experience combine an expansive array of primary sources with authoritative reference material culled chiefly from their respective catalogs. ABC-CLIO takes things a step further by incorporating extended scholarly discussions on a range of provocative questions posed by its advisory panel of Native American studies experts.

EBSCO Publishing’s Native American Archives delivers rare photographs, treaties, court documents, census counts, and more. At a hefty 1.8 million pages, it dwarfs the other products reviewed here. Gale Cengage, with three Native American‚ themed collections among its wide-ranging Archives Unbound releases, offers a fascinating body of material: the FBI’s declassified and recently digitized files pertaining to its surveillance of the American Indian Movement.

American Indian History Online
Facts On File; www.infobasepublishing. com/OnlineProductDetail.aspx?ISBN=0816043779

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CONTENT Facts On File’s American Indian History Online offers straightforward access to more than 15,000 years of Native culture and history through an authoritative collection of materials on indigenous peoples of North and South America. The material spans a range of types. Biographies cover figures from Spanish missionaries in the 1500s to present-day writers, activists, and political figures. Event and Topic entries describe tribes, key concepts and themes, court cases and legislation, material culture, organizations, and contributions to society. The database also includes primary-source documents: the texts of legends, Supreme Court decisions, treaties, and tribal constitutions; time line entries from Liz Sonneborn’s Chronology of American Indian History (Facts On File, 2007); historical images and videos from the Films Media Group; maps and charts; and information on tribes and culture areas. A tribe index representing more than 600 Native American groups together with a browse-by-culture-area feature spanning Ancient Cultures to Tropical Forests in South America enhance access, and Topic Centers, a group of specially selected entries organized by time period and North American culture areas, will help users find a starting point for research.

A comprehensive source list includes the publisher’s Social Life and Issues volume from its Contemporary Native American Issues set, the Landmark Events in Native American History and Indians of North America series, Encyclopedia of Native American Contributions to the World, Native American Mythology A to Z, Biographical Dictionary of American Indian History to 1900, and Encyclopedia of Native American Religions.

The opening screen features an Editor’s Selection of the Month, currently highlighting Ruth Muskrat Bronson, an activist and educator who worked for the Bureau of Indian Affairs Education Department.

USABILITY The material is organized within a colorful and interactive framework. Researchers can begin their work in multiple ways‚ through a basic or advanced search across all content; by browsing the six main categories (each allows for refinement by topic and time period) and/or the Tribes and Culture Areas; or by checking the Topic Center Index to get an overview of the subject matter. To further focus a topic, Biography browse includes narrowing by occupation (from Activists to Warriors, War Leaders, and Soldiers); Primary Sources by 16 document types (memoir, letters, court cases, etc.); and Legends by Full Text, Title, or one of ten Culture Areas.

A basic search for tribal colleges retrieved 227 records overall. Search results display in tabbed form, with sections for All, Biographies, Events & Topics, Primary Sources, Images & Videos, and Maps & Charts. A sampling of items included a comprehensive referenced article on community-controlled schools and tribal colleges, the full text of the Tribally Controlled Community College Assistance Act of 1978, a 2009 table/chart of tribally controlled colleges, and a biography of educator and historian Ruth Roessel.

Once an entry is selected, a sidebar displays handy links to related material. The tribal college query suggested the glossary term Indian college, which narrowed our initial search to more-relevant items, including President Nixon’s Special Message to the Congress on Indian Affairs (1970), during which he introduced a reformed federal Indian policy.

Topic Centers provide excellent avenues for exploration. In them are handpicked entries from all document types that provide a broad, inclusive look in an era- or culture-at-a-glance arrangement. We began with 1866‚ 1890: The Indian Wars and were presented with an assortment of items to examine, starting with a brief definition of the topic. Important events, figures, and topics include Grant’s Peace Policy, Sitting Bull (Lakota) and Ely Parker, the Dawes Severalty Act that provided for the dissolution of the Indian tribes as legal entities and the distribution of tribal lands among individual members, and 166 entries via a chronology, with events linked to corresponding items in the database.

Export options include Save, Email, or Print. Creating an account allows users to archive items for use during future sessions. Records have a persistent URL, and full citations are available, along with How To Cite information for those adhering to Chicago, MLA, and APA styles.

All navigation and search modes are available throughout the session via the top menu bar, as is access to a Dictionary, Search History, and cross-searching of the library’s other subscribed Facts On File history databases.

PRICING Starting prices are $395 for a school up to 500 FTE and $790 for public libraries with approximately 25,000 cardholders. All prices are for unlimited usage within the institution and include remote access privileges. Free 30-day trials are available.
END USERS This award-winning combination of historical and contemporary information offers an interactive, multifaceted look at the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Retrieving documents such as the Iroquois Constitution and Seneca Letter of Complaint to President Washington, from American State Papers, January 10, 1791, American Indian History Online clearly illustrates the richness of primary sources available. As a one-stop approach for accessing a broad range of content, this resource will appeal to all levels of users seeking information on Native history and culture.

The American Mosaic: The American Indian Experience
ABC-CLIO; www.abc-clio.com/product. aspx?id=2147483695

ljx120101refABC Ereviews: Native American History | January 2012CONTENT This database joins ABC-CLIO products on the African American and Latino American experiences in helping to create a more complex and complete picture of history and cultures that many Americans think they already know.

Developed with input from an advisory board of Native American studies scholars, The American Indian Experience (AIE) gives students access to authoritative reference content on a vast array of Native American subject areas along with solid further-reading recommendations and an extensive assortment of primary-source material. It is cross-searchable with other ABC-CLIO products.

The site is organized according to 11 historical eras, beginning with Early Native America, Precontact‚ 1527, and concluding with Modern Native Nations and Sovereignty, 1988‚ Present. Although the focus is on North America, there is at least basic coverage of the Olmecs, Mayans, and Aztecs, along with the Kanaka Maoli (Native Hawaiians), so investigations can proceed without regard to arbitrary contemporary political boundaries.

The Idea Exchange area features scholarly debate on a range of provocative questions relating to such topics as the use of Native American‚ themed mascots in non-Native sports, the impact of casinos on native cultures and economies, challenges faced by the Native LGBTQ population, and international sovereignty for Native Americans. Several rigorously argued, accessible responses from the advisory board‚ complete with footnotes‚ expound on each of these Enduring Questions.

The 1,263 articles incorporated into AIE include 263 essays, accounts of 167 significant events, 265 biographies, and more than 400 entries on groups, organizations, and movements. Sources for this content are not specifically identified, but the chief one appears to be Bruce E. Johansen and Barry M. Pritzker’s three-volume Encyclopedia of American Indian History (ABC-CLIO, 2008). There’s content from a diverse array of Greenwood titles, too, including Bruce E. Johansen’s The Encyclopedia of Native American Legal Tradition (1998), his and Barbara Alice Mann’s Encyclopedia of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois Confederacy) (2000), and Janice R. Welsch and J.Q. Adams’s Multicultural Films: A Reference Guide (2000).

There are three detailed time lines and a considerable amount of media, including 1330 images, nearly 30 maps, and 50 videos. The glossary search capability is helpful.

Its richness of its primary-source material makes AIE much more than a resource for simple factual lookups. There are nearly 700 documents in all, including government and court materials, cultural records, speeches and narratives, quotes, and other items.

Among the government documents are nearly 400 ratified treaties‚ added in November 2011‚ that appear in text form and as PDFs of the original (sometimes handwritten) source. Each treaty entry includes a brief statement on the treaty’s significance, the parties involved, the list of signatories, and the place where it was negotiated. Like the other resources in this database, the treaties are linked to an array of relevant content, and the accompanying essays help to establish the context of the agreement.

AIE entries are updated continuously, and new content is routinely added.

USABILITY The clean AIE interface enables researchers to enter the Eras or Idea Exchange areas of the resource, to navigate to Advanced Search mode, or to immediately enter Quick Search terms. Users may also begin exploring the featured era displayed on the main page upon login.

Terms appearing within each entry are hot-linked to the database, easing connections throughout the resource. Likewise, the faceted display of Related Entries along the left-hand frame of the article being viewed encourages researchers to really explore all the richness that AIE has to offer.

Each of the Eras has between one and four essays associated with that theme and time period. Entries begin with an overview that summarizes key historical and cultural events. Additional entries‚ articles, media, documents, etc.‚ are associated with the parent essay. The entry for Captivity Narratives under Dutch and English Colonies, 1602‚ 1664, for example, leads eventually to the complete text of the Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, described here as a Cultural Document.

Advanced Search mode permits searching according to seven (mainly format-related) categories, 11 historical Eras, 50 States, 11 Regions, and nearly 160 Tribes using any combination of check boxes. Keywords may be added to the search strategy for additional precision. Checking Abenaki and Algonquin under Tribes and typing in the keyword french, for example, is the equivalent of the Boolean search strategy: french AND (Abenaki OR Algonquin). Preliminary results may be easily filtered by checking additional format-related categories after the results are displayed.

Users may tailor search strategies by using Boolean operators to narrow or expand a search or by using quotation marks to find exact phrases. Keywords are automatically truncated. Entries are easily printed or emailed, cited (using APA, Chicago, or MLA style), and then exported to RefWorks or EasyBib‚ features that students will appreciate.

We encountered some editorial anomalies, however. Numerous signed articles (Wampum and Weaving by Gregory Schaaf, for example) in the Encyclopedia of American Indian History are attributed to Pritzker, who coedited the print set, while others (such as Troy R. Johnson’s Occupation of Alcatraz Island) are unattributed in the online resource.

PRICING Cost varies depending on the number of subscriptions the library has to ABC-CLIO products and the number of patrons in the case of a public or academic library or the number of buildings for a school district. It ranges from 89¢ per student per year to $2500 for a site license for unlimited annual access. Free 60-day trials are available.

END USERS At the very least, this tool represents a sophisticated way to re-purpose existing reference content. Indeed, libraries hoping to buy back some shelf space by subscribing will be able to warehouse a number of fairly recent Greenwood and ABC-CLIO reference titles. Such an assessment, though, seriously understates the value of this resource. It includes numerous essays‚ unique to AIE‚ that are perfectly suited to an academic audience; it incorporates a significant number of primary-source documents that dramatically enhance the research experience; and it is geared toward state and national standards, making it an appropriate tool for students from middle school through college.

Archives Unbound
Gale Cengage Learning;
gdc.gale.com/archivesunbound

ljx120101refgale Ereviews: Native American History | January 2012CONTENT Gale Cengage’s Archives Unbound unlocks the microfilm cabinets, making an incredible range of primary-source material more widely available to scholars and researchers. Collections cover everything from settlers’ travels through the American West in the 1800s to the papers of poet Amiri Baraka, with sets on the Chinese civil war, the Vatican and the Holocaust, the U.S. savings and loan crisis, and dozens of other significant subject areas. The following collections deal specifically with Native Americans.

The American Indian Movement and Native American Radicalism, which this review focuses on, includes reports from agents and informants, correspondence, and memoranda relating to surveillance operations undertaken after the emergence of the American Indian Movement (AIM) during a particularly volatile time in this country’s history. While the group was under surveillance by the FBI from 1969 to 1979, it seized the replica of the Mayflower at the 350th anniversary of the landing at Plymouth Rock; occupied the Bureau of Indian Affairs offices in Washington, DC; staged the takeover of Alcatraz; and participated in the violent standoff at Wounded Knee. Although the FBI had its hands full on a number of fronts, it collected more than 14,000 pages of intelligence on the movement’s leaders, policies, plans, and role in the struggles regarding civil rights and liberal politics generally.

Archives Unbound also includes two earlier historical microfilm collections‚ The War Department and Indian Affairs, 1800‚ 1824, and American Indian Correspondence: Presbyterian Historical Society Collection of Missionaries’ Letters, 1833‚ 1893.

The War Department set includes documents relating to the period when the secretary of war had direct responsibility over Native American affairs prior to the 1824 establishment of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The approximately 7600-page collection contains correspondence between the superintendent of Indian trade and other federal officials and individuals who had commercial dealings with the War Department. Users will also uncover transcripts of speeches to Native Americans, conference proceedings, trading licenses, Indian country passports, and official communiqués.

In the letters collection, nearly 14,000 pieces of correspondence chronicle, in more than 40,000 pages, the missionaries’ relentless attempts to impose Christianity and civilization on tribes whose cultures they viewed with absolute intolerance. The material provides deep insight into the Native American cultures the missionaries observed, intertribal rivalries, and relations with Washington. It also shines an intense light on the personal lives of the correspondents and the grueling hardships they often endured.

USABILITY These collections may be viewed individually or as part of Gale’s subject categories: the AIM collection appears under Native American Studies as well as under Law & Legal History and Political Science but oddly is not listed under Radical Studies. Selecting View All Documents brings up the various volumes of the collection, with a single box enabling users to search within the results.

Those looking for insight into AIM policy and philosophy will likely be disappointed by the focus of the FBI’s documentation. There is just one reference in the collection to the Twenty Point Program, a summary of the American Indian Movement’s issues with federal treaties and the long history of broken promises associated with those agreements. The term firearms, in contrast, brings up more than 40 hits, which suggests that the FBI was much more interested in what AIM was plotting than in the organization’s principles.

Clicking on a title in the results list permits users to page through the PDF or jump directly to the specific page within the document where the search term is located. Search terms are highlighted, making them easy to spot‚ a terrific feature‚ and users may also search within the document with a second keyword. Additionally, Gale provides Fuzzy Search capability that is intended to help locate near matches, but unfortunately we were not able to expand the results successfully in this way.

Advanced Search offers specific fields (Full Text, Keyword, Document Title, Author, Place Name, Document Number, or Previous Searches), boxes that are connected by pull-down Boolean operators. Patrons may search all of a library’s Archive Unbound holdings or individual or multiple collections or categories of collections. Advanced mode also permits searching by date range and language.

Results lists may be sorted in several ways, but because titles (typically a file number and volume) are not particularly revealing, at least to untrained researchers, and dates frequently aren’t transferred from the source document to the citation, this function is not very useful.

Documents are easily printed, emailed, downloaded as PDFs, and bookmarked. Image quality‚ at least within The American Indian Movement and Native American Radicalism‚ is generally quite good, although most documents have words and sometimes whole sections excised.

PRICING The American Indian Movement and Native American Radicalism archive is available for a one-time purchase price of $598. Libraries that purchase two to four Archives Unbound collections will get it for $483, and those who buy five or more collections pay $453.

The War Department and Indian Affairs collection costs $285 as a solo purchase, with discounts to $233 and $219 for multiple purchases. American Indian Correspondence: Presbyterian Historical Society Collection of Missionaries’ Letters, 1833‚ 1893, is priced at $998 with discounts to $803 and $753. A $5 annual hosting fee applies to all titles purchased from the collection.

END USERS While The American Indian Movement and Native American Radicalism collection can at times be fascinating, it can also be quite mundane, e.g., when it comes to descriptions of suspects under surveillance and their vehicles. Regardless, viewing a political, social, and cultural organization through the lens of a law enforcement agency during a time of intense national upheaval provides a perspective unlike any other.

Native American Archives
EBSCO; ebscohost.com/archives/history-genealogy/native-american

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CONTENT This primary-source collection provides more than 1.8 million pages of original historical documents pertaining to Native American history, culture, and life from the 18th through the 20th centuries. The archive, a collaborative effort of the National Archives and the Allen County, IN, Public Library, offers several collections.

Rinehart Photos‚ Native Americans (1898), made available courtesy of the Boston Public Library, showcases material by Frank A. Rinehart, a commercial photographer who was commissioned to record the 1898 Indian Congress, which attracted around 500 Native attendees from 35 tribes.

Indian Census Rolls (1885‚ 1940) preserves material submitted annually by agents or superintendents of Indian reservations as required by an 1884 Act of Congress. Most images include the person’s English and/or Indian name, roll number, age or date of birth, sex, and relationship to head of family. Post-1930 rolls include information on degree of Indian blood, marital and ward status, and place of residence.

The Dawes Packets series includes the original applications for tribal enrollments under the act of June 28, 1898, as well as various supporting documents such as birth and death affidavits, marriage licenses, court orders, and transcripts of testimony taken by the Dawes Commission (Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes) that was appointed by President Cleveland to negotiate land rights with the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole nations in 1893. Dawes Enrollment Cards (1898‚ 1914) or Census Cards were prepared by the Dawes Commission to record information about family groups within the five tribes. They list name, age, degree of Indian blood, relationship to the head of the family group, and parents’ names.

Eastern Cherokee Applications (1906‚ 09) were submitted for shares of the money that was designated for the Eastern Cherokee Indians by Congress on June 30, 1906; the applications are also part of The Guion Miller Rolls collection, an important source for Cherokee genealogical research and for establishing family relationships and tribal connections.

Cherokee Indian Agency in Tennessee (1801‚ 1835), the records of the state’s agent of Indian Affairs, includes correspondence, agency letter books, fiscal records, and records of the agent for the Department of War in Tennessee and of the agent for Cherokee removal.

Ratified Indian Treaties (1722‚ 1869) is a series of agreements and related papers arranged chronologically by their date of signing. Examples include Treaty with the Seneca at Buffalo Creek, June 30, 1802; Treaty with the Creeks at Washington, November 14, 1805; Senate Resolution, December 29, 1820, on the Treaty with the Kickapoo at Edwardsville, July 30, 1819; and Treaty with the Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes at Fort Laramie, Dakota Territory, May 10, 1868.

USABILITY This database is currently available‚ along with other historical archive collections‚ via Fold3 (formerly Footnote) History and Genealogy Archives Plus platform; EBSCO plans to move the material to its own environment in 2012.

The regular Fold3 (www.fold3.com) site is available for free as an online collection of U.S. historical military records and stories, with some 82 million images. Membership is also available. The basic level allows access to selected free images and documents; users can also purchase images for a fee, upload personal images and historical documents, add annotations and comments, and spotlight an image or part of an image. Premium membership allows open access to all collections for a monthly or annual fee. The Native American Archivesis available through this premium access.

Navigation and search options are relatively straightforward, and the Fold3 interface has some appealing options once a search is executed. From the opening screen, users can elect to browse the individual titles or search a specific source or across all titles.

Though help is basically nonexistent, that did not deter us from finding some real gems. Users can easily refine a simple keyword search using numerous limit options such as additional keywords, limiting to specific last name, collection, place, year, and tribe. A bread-crumb trail is displayed throughout, allowing researchers to quickly retrace their steps to a previous screen, collection, and/or query.

A keyword search for midwife retrieved 20,516 records, the majority of which were from the Dawes Packets collection. Limiting to the Seminole tribe gave us 404 matches, with the option to keep refining. The retrieved image thumbnails offer a Quick Look view, which is a fast way to scan for the highlighted term or phrase. In addition, this view displays the document’s metadata, such as Title, National Archive Catalog Number, and Content Source. Once selected, the full image loads into the Fold3 viewer and a variety of tools‚ to zoom, magnify, rotate, and adjust for brightness and contrast, for example‚ display for viewing and manipulating the picture.

We found the magnifier to be very effective when reading several of the older treaties that were handwritten on parchment, as well as for examining dress and scenery details in the Rinehart photographs. Without the imaging tools, much of the digitized material would be hard to decipher. About the Image displays full metadata, and Find in Image presents a pop-up search box that works well for typed content, although the handwritten text was not picked up. Arrow navigation allows users to move forward or backward image by image within the collection or to use the Filmstrip View at the bottom of the screen to scroll through the material several thumbnail images at a time. Images and metadata can be printed and images can be saved as JPEG files for off-line research.

PRICING Through EBSCO, single instituion perpetual pricing for Native American Archives ranges from $4550 to $59,150, based on a variety of factors including FTE and the number of existing EBSCO databases to which a library subscribes. Fees are subject to change based on royalty requirements, etc. Ranges for consortia and online institutions may vary. Free 30-day trials are available.

END USERS Native American Archives is ideal for serious researchers seeking detailed genealogical records, historical treaties, and significant tribal and governmental correspondence information. In addition to the renowned Rinehart photographs from the 1898 Indian Congress, a few earlier treaties and agreements between the Colonial governments and with the Continental Congress and the Congress of the Confederation are included, offering a unique and authoritative perspective on early Native experiences.

E-SHORT TAKES

Bibliography of Native North Americans
EBSCO; www.ebscohost.com/academic/bibliography-of-native-north-americans

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With more than 141,000 citations for books, essays, conference papers, journal articles, and government documents of the United States and Canada, this bibliographic database covers all aspects of Native North American culture, history, and life from the 16th century to today. Groups covered include Aleuts; Eskimos or Inuit of Greenland, northern Canada, Alaska, and eastern Siberia; and other Native peoples of Alaska, Canada, the United States, and northern Mexico.

The resource features a wide range of subjects such as archaeology, gaming, governance, legends, and literacy and incorporates citations from the cumulative eight volumes of the Ethnographic Bibliography of North America as well as new citations. Its 260-plus indexed journals include Alaska Law Review, American Indian, Canadian Journal of Native Studies, First Peoples Child & Family Review, Journal of the West, and Wicazo Sa Review.

A substantially improved version is planned in 2012, with reindexing of records using new subject headings; the addition of a thesaurus consisting of more than 230 culture names and more than 5300 ethnonyms; and incorporating Use For functionality in keyword searches.

Early Encounters in North America: Peoples, Cultures and the Environment
Alexander Street Press; alexanderstreet.com/products/eena.htm

Early Encounters (EENA) gathers published and unpublished personal accounts of traders, slaves, missionaries, explorers, soldiers, Native peoples, and officials. The database focuses on descriptions of the natural features of North America as well as the interactions among various culture groups, with coverage from 1534 to 1850. EENA contains information on 1,482 authors and provides more than 100,000 pages of narratives, diaries, journals, images, maps, and letters that document the first impressions of North America by Europeans and of Europeans by native people. A sampling of source texts includes accounts of early explorations of the colonies at Roanoke and Plymouth; collected accounts of the Americas published in Europe by de Bry; the original journals of the Lewis and Clark expedition; and studies on the distinct cultures of California; accounts by the Apache, Yuma, and Navaho; and information on the natural and cultural impact of the California Gold Rush.

EENA includes more than 1200 quality color images, including many works by George Catlin and John James Audubon. These are indexed independently and are searchable by date, author, and numerous other identifiers and are viewable when browsing the electronic versions of whole books. The database is available either through annual subscription or as a one-time purchase of perpetual rights.

eHRAF World Cultures
Human Relations Area Files, Inc.; www.yale.edu/hraf/collections.htm

Founded in 1949 at Yale University, Human Relations Area Files, Inc. (HRAF) is a not-for-profit consortium of universities, colleges, and research institutions. Available to HRAF members or by temporary password, eHRAF World Cultures‚ one of two electronic online collections, the other being eHRAF Archaeology‚ is an online cross-cultural database that contains descriptive information on all aspects of cultural and social life from ethnic groups worldwide. A less currentl version is available on microfiche.

Updated annually with 20‚ 30 new cultures, the database is organized according to cultures and ethnic groups, and full-text sources are subject-indexed at the paragraph level. Each culture or ethnic group area offers a variety of source documents including full-text books, journal articles, monographs, illustrations and graphics, and dissertations that have been indexed and organized according to HRAF’s detailed culture and subject classification systems, allowing for quick and precise subject retrieval, even in a foreign language. Users can find brief summaries of cultures on general topics such as demography, economy, and social organization and can browse a single culture or conduct cross-cultural research within regions or throughout the world.

Content extends from historical to present. Approximately 25 percent is new ethnographic material, with the remaining documents converted from the microfiche of HRAF’s Collection of Ethnography.

Ethnic NewsWatch
ProQuest; www.proquest.com/en-US/catalogs/databases/detail/ethnic_newswatch.shtml

Ethnic NewsWatch provides access to the full-text of present-day newspapers, magazines, and scholarly journals from a variety of ethnic and minority presses, affording access to varying perspectives from nonmainstream and community publications. It has the largest full-text archive of Native American publications available and incoudes top scholarly journals on ethnicities and ethnic studies in general. Titles includes Abya Yala News, Akwesasne Notes, Appalachian Heritage, Cherokee Observer, Journal of Chickasaw History and Culture, Tribal College, and Journal of American Indian Higher Education. The majority of this content is exclusive to Ethnic NewsWatch. The database is updated daily with new content, and new ethnic presses are continually monitored and their titles added regularly.

Institutions can bundle their subscription with the publisher’s Ethnic NewsWatch: A History, which provides retrospective coverage of Native American, African American, and Hispanic American primary-source material from 1959 to 1989. Together these resources include more than 2.5 million full-text, fully indexed articles from 330-plus publications.

UXL Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes
Gale Cengage Learning; www.gale.cengage.com/gvrl

Available online via Gale Virtual Reference Library (GVRL), Sharon Malinowski, Anna Sheets, and Linda Schmittroth’s UXL Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes offers detailed research on approximately 80 tribes‚ including small groups and some no longer in existence‚ from ten U.S. and Canadian regions. The resource allows a comprehensive view of history, religion, art, government, economy, daily life, notable members, language, and current social and political issues. After an introduction, each essay discusses History, Oral Literature, Culture, and Current Tribal Issues. A bibliography and further-reading section provide avenues to supplementary information and in-depth study, and the more than 250 photographs and illustrations and 100 maps comprise a visual introduction to tribal experiences and culture. Native American Tribes is divided into four regional volumes, covering the Northeast and Southeast; the Great Basin and Southwest; the Arctic, subarctic, Great Plains, and plateau; and California and the Pacific Northwest.

Gail Golderman (goldermg@union.edu) is Electronic Resources Librarian and Bruce Connolly (connollb@union.edu) is Reference and Bibliographic Instruction Librarian, Schaffer Library, Union College, Schenectady, NY

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About Bruce Connolly & Gail Golderman

Gail Golderman (goldermg@union.edu) is Electronic Resources Librarian and Bruce Connolly (connollb@union.edu) is Reference & Bibliographic Instruction Librarian, Schaffer Library, Union College, Schenectady, NY

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